Academy of Sciences of Cuba
The Academy of Sciences of Cuba is an official institution of the Cuban State, independent and consultative in matters of science. The Academy, throughout its history has adopted different organizational forms according to the environment in which it has carried out its activities. The first Academy of Sciences was founded, after more than 35 years of negotiations with the Spanish Crown, on May 19, 1861, with the name of Royal Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences of Havana. This is the oldest still active national merit based academy of sciences established in the world outside Europe. After the inauguration of the Republic in 1902, that Academy retained its structure and organization but lost the title of "Royal". In 1962, the Cuban revolutionary process created the National Commission for the Academy of Sciences of Cuba and for the first time the name of the Academy showed its effective national scope. As part of the process of institutionalization of the revolutionary State, in 1976, through Law 1323 of the Organization of the Central Administration of the State, the Academy of Sciences of Cuba was established as an administrative body with the status of a National Institute. In 1980, by the transfer to the Academy of the functions of the State Committee for Science and Technology and with the new task of being the national organization responsible for all of the scientific and technological activity in the country, the Academy acquired the rank of a Ministry. In 1994, within the process of reorganization of the Central Administration of the Cuban State, the administrative structure of the Academy, together with the National Commission for Environment and Natural Resources, and the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs, became the Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba.